Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases

Published by: Kowsar

Evaluation and Comparison of Urinary Cytokines for the Diagnosis of Acute Pyelonephritis

Azar Nickavar 1 , Baranak Safaeian 2 , * and Ehsan Valavi 3
Authors Information
1 Pediatric Nephrology Department, Aliasghar Children’s Hospital, Iran University Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Neonatal and Children’s Health Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
3 Division of Nephrology, Pediatric Department, Abuzar Children’s Hospital, Ahvaz University Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
Article information
  • Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases: October 01, 2016, 4 (4); e38877
  • Published Online: August 6, 2016
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: April 30, 2016
  • Revised: June 15, 2016
  • Accepted: June 21, 2016
  • DOI: 10.5812/pedinfect.38877

To Cite: Nickavar A, Safaeian B, Valavi E. Evaluation and Comparison of Urinary Cytokines for the Diagnosis of Acute Pyelonephritis, Arch Pediatr Infect Dis. 2016 ; 4(4):e38877. doi: 10.5812/pedinfect.38877.

Copyright © 2016, Pediartric Infections Research Center. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Nickavar A, Sotoudeh K. Treatment and prophylaxis in pediatric urinary tract infection. Int J Prev Med. 2011; 2(1): 4-9[PubMed]
  • 2. Sheu JN, Chen MC, Cheng SL, Lee IC, Chen SM, Tsay GJ. Urine interleukin-1beta in children with acute pyelonephritis and renal scarring. Nephrology (Carlton). 2007; 12(5): 487-93[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Gurgoze MK, Akarsu S, Yilmaz E, Godekmerdan A, Akca Z, Ciftci I, et al. Proinflammatory cytokines and procalcitonin in children with acute pyelonephritis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005; 20(10): 1445-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Hatipoglu S, Sevketoglu E, Gedikbasi A, Yilmaz A, Kiyak A, Mulazimoglu M, et al. Urinary MMP-9/NGAL complex in children with acute cystitis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2011; 26(8): 1263-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Elder JS. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 2016;
  • 6. Kassir K, Vargas-Shiraishi O, Zaldivar F, Berman M, Singh J, Arrieta A. Cytokine profiles of pediatric patients treated with antibiotics for pyelonephritis: potential therapeutic impact. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2001; 8(6): 1060-3
  • 7. Rodriguez LM, Robles B, Marugan JM, Suarez A, Santos F. Urinary interleukin-6 is useful in distinguishing between upper and lower urinary tract infections. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008; 23(3): 429-33[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Sharifian M, Anvaripour N, Karimi A, Fahimzad A, Mohkam M, Dalirani R, et al. The role of dexamethasone on decreasing urinary cytokines in children with acute pyelonephritis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008; 23(9): 1511-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Otto G, Braconier J, Andreasson A, Svanborg C. Interleukin-6 and disease severity in patients with bacteremic and nonbacteremic febrile urinary tract infection. J Infect Dis. 1999; 179(1): 172-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Renata Y, Jassar H, Katz R, Hochberg A, Nir RR, Klein-Kremer A. Urinary concentration of cytokines in children with acute pyelonephritis. Eur J Pediatr. 2013; 172(6): 769-74[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Benson M, Jodal U, Agace W, Hellstrom M, Marild S, Rosberg S, et al. Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in children with febrile urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria. J Infect Dis. 1996; 174(5): 1080-4[PubMed]
  • 12. Sheu JN, Chen SM, Meng MH, Lue KH. The role of serum and urine interleukin-8 on acute pyelonephritis and subsequent renal scarring in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009; 28(10): 885-90[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Tullus K, Escobar-Billing R, Fituri O, Burman LG, Karlsson A, Wikstad I, et al. Interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in the urine of children with acute pyelonephritis and relation to renal scarring. Acta Paediatr. 1996; 85(2): 158-62[PubMed]
  • 14. Khalil A, Brauner A, Bakhiet M, Burman LG, Jaremko G, Wretlind B, et al. Cytokine gene expression during experimental Escherichia coli pyelonephritis in mice. J Urol. 1997; 158(4): 1576-80[PubMed]
  • 15. Krzemien G, Roszkowska-Blaim M, Kostro I, Szmigielska A, Karpinska M, Sieniawska M, et al. Urinary levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in children with urinary tract infections to age 2. Med Sci Monit. 2004; 10(11)-7[PubMed]
  • 16. Chopra U, Vohra H, Chhibber S, Ganguly NK, Sharma S. TH1 pattern of cytokine secretion by splenic cells from pyelonephritic mice after in-vitro stimulation with hsp-65 of Escherichia coli. J Med Microbiol. 1997; 46(2): 139-44[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Lin SJ, Huang JL. Circulating interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in children with febrile infection--a comparison with C-reactive protein. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 1998; 16(2-3): 105-9[PubMed]
  • 18. Roilides E, Papachristou F, Gioulekas E, Tsaparidou S, Karatzas N, Sotiriou J, et al. Increased urine interleukin-6 concentrations correlate with pyelonephritic changes on 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scans in neonates with urinary tract infections. J Infect Dis. 1999; 180(3): 904-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Tullus K, Escobar-Billing R, Fituri O, Lu Y, Brauner A. Soluble receptors to tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-6 in urine during acute pyelonephritis. Acta Paediatr. 1997; 86(11): 1198-202[PubMed]
  • 20. Puczko-Michalczuk A, Zoch-Zwierz W, Wasilewska A, Porowska T, Korzeniecka-Kozerska A. [Evaluation of inflammatory and renal injury markers in youngest children with pyelonephritis]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2008; 25(150): 451-4[PubMed]
  • 21. Olszyna DP, Prins JM, Dekkers PE, De Jonge E, Speelman P, Van Deventer SJ, et al. Sequential measurements of chemokines in urosepsis and experimental endotoxemia. J Clin Immunol. 1999; 19(6): 399-405[PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments