Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases

Published by: Kowsar

Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis

Payam Tabarsi 1 , * and Davood Yadegarinia 2
Authors Information
1 Clinical TB and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
2 Iranian Infectious Disease Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases: January 01, 2015, 3 (1 TB); e22542
  • Published Online: January 28, 2015
  • Article Type: Rapid Communication
  • Received: August 4, 2014
  • Accepted: August 10, 2014
  • DOI: 10.5812/pedinfect.22542

To Cite: Tabarsi P, Yadegarinia D. Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Arch Pediatr Infect Dis. 2015 ; 3(1 TB):e22542. doi: 10.5812/pedinfect.22542.

Copyright © 2015, Pediartric Infections Research Center. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Introduction
2. Epidemiology
3. Diagnosis
4. Treatment
5. Discussion
  • 1. Global tuberculosis report 2013 2013;
  • 2. Definitions and reporting framework for tuberculosis-2013 revision 2013;
  • 3. Centers for Disease C. Emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with extensive resistance to second-line drugs--worldwide, 2000-2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006; 55(11): 301-5[PubMed]
  • 4. Velayati AA, Masjedi MR, Farnia P, Tabarsi P, Ghanavi J, Ziazarifi AH, et al. Emergence of new forms of totally drug-resistant tuberculosis bacilli: super extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis or totally drug-resistant strains in iran. Chest. 2009; 136(2): 420-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Cegielski P, Nunn P, Kurbatova EV, Weyer K, Dalton TL, Wares DF, et al. Challenges and controversies in defining totally drug-resistant tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012; 18(11)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Matteelli A, Roggi A, Carvalho AC. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: epidemiology and management. Clin Epidemiol. 2014; 6: 111-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Tabarsi P, Nooraki A, Mirsaeidi M, Amiri M, Baghaei P, Farnia P, et al. Representative drug susceptibility patterns for guiding design of re-treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Iran. Respirology. 2008; 13(1): 108-11[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Masjedi MR, Tabarsi P, Baghaei P, Jalali S, Farnia P, Chitsaz E, et al. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment outcome in Iran: a case series of seven patients. Int J Infect Dis. 2010; 14(5)-402[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Tabarsi P, Chitsaz E, Baghaei P, Shamaei M, Farnia P, Marjani M, et al. Impact of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis on treatment outcome of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients with standardized regimen: report from Iran. Microb Drug Resist. 2010; 16(1): 81-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Tabarsi P, Mardani M. Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: A Review Article. Arch clin infect dis. 2012; 7(3): 81-4[DOI]
  • 11. Tabarsi P, Marjani M, Mansouri N, Farnia P, Boisson-Dupuis S, Bustamante J, et al. Lethal tuberculosis in a previously healthy adult with IL-12 receptor deficiency. J Clin Immunol. 2011; 31(4): 537-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Shim TS, Jo KW. Medical treatment of pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Infect Chemother. 2013; 45(4): 367-74[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Masjedi MR, Tabarsi P, Marjani M, Shiva PB, Nasehi M, Gooya MM, et al. Management of MDR-TB: Review of Iran’s Experience. Tanaffos. 2013; 12(1): 6-15
  • 14. Kim HR, Hwang SS, Kim HJ, Lee SM, Yoo CG, Kim YW, et al. Impact of extensive drug resistance on treatment outcomes in non-HIV-infected patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2007; 45(10): 1290-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Gandhi NR, Moll A, Sturm AW, Pawinski R, Govender T, Lalloo U, et al. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis as a cause of death in patients co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV in a rural area of South Africa. Lancet. 2006; 368(9547): 1575-80[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Sotgiu G, Centis R, D'Ambrosio L, Alffenaar JW, Anger HA, Caminero JA, et al. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of linezolid containing regimens in treating MDR-TB and XDR-TB: systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respir J. 2012; 40(6): 1430-42[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Lee M, Lee J, Carroll MW, Choi H, Min S, Song T, et al. Linezolid for treatment of chronic extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 2012; 367(16): 1508-18[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Abbate E, Vescovo M, Natiello M, Cufre M, Garcia A, Gonzalez Montaner P, et al. Successful alternative treatment of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in Argentina with a combination of linezolid, moxifloxacin and thioridazine. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012; 67(2): 473-7[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .
Readers' Comments