Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases

Published by: Kowsar

Pattern of Antibiotic Usage in Children Hospitalized for Common Infectious Diseases

Farideh Shiva 1 , Roxana Ghanaie 1 , * , Fariba Shirvani 1 , Shahnaz Armin 1 , Sedigheh Rafiei Tabatabaei 1 , Sayed Alireza Fahimzad 1 , Fatemeh Fallah 1 , Hassan PourMoshtagh 1 and Abdollah Karimi 1
Authors Information
1 Pediatric Infections Research Center, Research Institute For Children Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Article information
  • Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases: January 2018, 6 (1); e34474
  • Published Online: January 16, 2017
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: November 8, 2015
  • Revised: October 15, 2016
  • Accepted: November 21, 2016
  • DOI: 10.5812/pedinfect.34474

To Cite: Shiva F, Ghanaie R, Shirvani F, Armin S, Rafiei Tabatabaei S, et al. Pattern of Antibiotic Usage in Children Hospitalized for Common Infectious Diseases, Arch Pediatr Infect Dis. 2018 ; 6(1):e34474. doi: 10.5812/pedinfect.34474.

Copyright © 2017, Pediartric Infections Research Center. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
  • 1. Kieny MP. The evolving threat of antimicrobial resistance. Options for action. Executive Summary. [cited 20th July]. Available from:
  • 2. Davies J, Davies D. Origins and evolution of antibiotic resistance. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2010;74(3):417-33. doi: 10.1128/MMBR.00016-10. [PubMed: 20805405].
  • 3. Abera B, Kibret M, Mulu W. Knowledge and beliefs on antimicrobial resistance among physicians and nurses in hospitals in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2014;15:26. doi: 10.1186/2050-6511-15-26. [PubMed: 24887310].
  • 4. World Health Organization . Bulletin of the world health organization antimicrobial resistance: Revisiting the "tragedy of the commons". Bull World Health Organ. 2010;88(11).
  • 5. Holloway K DL. The world medicines situation 2011. Rational use of medicines; 2015.
  • 6. No authors listed . Antimicrobial resistance. [2015 November 08]. Available from:
  • 7. Hosoglu S, Parlak Z, Geyik MF, Palanci Y. Critical evaluation of antimicrobial use--a Turkish university hospital example. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2013;7(11):873-9. doi: 10.3855/jidc.2921. [PubMed: 24240047].
  • 8. Chowdhury A, Das A, Diwan V, Kafle KK, Mabadeje B. How to investigate drug use in health facilities. International network for rational use of Drugs. [cited 20th March]. Available from:
  • 9. Strohmeier Y, Hodson EM, Willis NS, Webster AC, Craig JC. Antibiotics for acute pyelonephritis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;28(7):CD003772.
  • 10. Lodha R, Kabra SK, Pandey RM. Antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;4(6):CD004874.
  • 11. Neuhaus TJ, Berger C, Buechner K, Parvex P, Bischoff G, Goetschel P, et al. Randomised trial of oral versus sequential intravenous/oral cephalosporins in children with pyelonephritis. Eur J Pediatr. 2008;167(9):1037-47. doi: 10.1007/s00431-007-0638-1. [PubMed: 18074149].
  • 12. No authors listed . WHO injection safety fact sheet 3rd February 2012. [cited 9th Aug]. Available from:
  • 13. Farsi D, Zare MA, Hassani SA, Abbasi S, Emaminaini A, Hafezimoghadam P, et al. Prevalence of occupational exposure to blood and body secretions and its related effective factors among health care workers of three Emergency Departments in Tehran. J Res Med Sci. 2012;17(7):656-61. [PubMed: 23798926].
  • 14. Karimi M, Owlia MB. Nicolau syndrome following intramuscular penicillin injection. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2012;22(1):41-2. [PubMed: 22237189].
  • 15. Pristas I, Barsic B, Butic I, Zarb P, Goossens H, Andrasevic AT. Point prevalence survey on antibiotic use in a Croatian Infectious Disease Hospital. J Chemother. 2013;25(4):222-8. doi: 10.1179/1973947812Y.0000000065. [PubMed: 23906076].
  • 16. Gupta M, Malhotra S, Chandra KK, Sharma N, Pandhi P. Utilization of parenteral anti-infective agents in the medical emergency unit of a tertiary care hospital: an observational study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2004;13(9):653-7. doi: 10.1002/pds.927. [PubMed: 15362089].
  • 17. Williams DJ, Hall M, Shah SS, Parikh K, Tyler A, Neuman MI, et al. Narrow vs broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy for children hospitalized with pneumonia. Pediatrics. 2013;132(5):e1141-8. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-1614. [PubMed: 24167170].
  • 18. Kaliamoorthy K, Sankaralingam R, Punniyakotti S, Janardhan V, Cheekala UR. Drug utilization evaluation of third generation cephalosporins using core drug use indicators. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2012;25(2):339-42. [PubMed: 22459458].
  • 19. Shalviri G, Yousefian S, Gholami K. Adverse events induced by ceftriaxone: a 10-year review of reported cases to Iranian Pharmacovigilance Centre. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2012;37(4):448-51. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2011.01321.x. [PubMed: 22122488].
  • 20. Shen X, Liu W, Fang X, Jia J, Lin H, Xu M, et al. Acute kidney injury caused by ceftriaxone-induced urolithiasis in children: a single-institutional experience in diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Int Urol Nephrol. 2014;46(10):1909-14. doi: 10.1007/s11255-014-0742-x. [PubMed: 24879561].
  • 21. Neuman G, Boodhan S, Wurman I, Koren G, Bitnun A, Kirby-Allen M, et al. Ceftriaxone-induced immune hemolytic anemia. Ann Pharmacother. 2014;48(12):1594-604. doi: 10.1177/1060028014548310. [PubMed: 25163809].
  • 22. Kelly MS, Sandora TJ. Community acquired pneumonia. In nelson textbook of pediatrics. 20th Edition ed. Elsevier; 2016. p. 2088-93.
  • 23. Vlahovic-Palcevski V, Francetic I, Palcevski G, Novak S, Abram M, Bergman U. Antimicrobial use at a university hospital: appropriate or misused? A qualitative study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007;45(3):169-74. [PubMed: 17416112].
  • 24. Huttner B, Harbarth S, Nathwani D, Escmid Study Group for Antibiotic Policies . Success stories of implementation of antimicrobial stewardship: a narrative review. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014;20(10):954-62. doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12803. [PubMed: 25294340].
  • 25. Cooke J, Alexander K, Charani E, Hand K, Hills T, Howard P, et al. Antimicrobial stewardship: an evidence-based, antimicrobial self-assessment toolkit (ASAT) for acute hospitals. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65(12):2669-73. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkq367. [PubMed: 20935301].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments